UV – FAQ’s
How does ultraviolet light purify water?
UV-C rays penetrate the cells of harmful bacteria and viruses in water, destroying their ability to reproduce. Without this ability, these organisms die and no longer pose a health threat. It is a simple but very effective process, with the system generally destroying 99.99% of harmful microorganisms.
What are the beneficial uses of Germicidal UV?
Ultraviolet technology is a non-chemical approach to disinfection. In this method of disinfection, nothing is added which makes this process simple, inexpensive and requires very low maintenance. Ultraviolet purifiers utilize germicidal lamps that are designed and calculated to produce a certain dosage of ultraviolet (usually at least 16,000 microwatt seconds per square centimeter but many units actually have a much higher dosage). The principle of design is based on a product of time and intensity – you must have a certain amount of both for a successful design.
Does UV really work?
UV has been proven under numerous studies for its ability to destroy the DNA of germs, viruses, mold, spores, fungi, and bacteria. UV works on different levels depending on what one wants to accomplish. Westinghouse Electric, General Electric, Penn State University and Harvard School of Public Health conducted laboratory tests on the effectiveness of UV light on microorganisms. UV light has been used in wastewater plants and commercial settings for over 60 years.
Does the age of my UV lamp affect its effectiveness?
Yes! Your germicidal ultraviolet lamp’s effectiveness will decrease with age and hours used.
How often should I replace my UV lamps?
At least once a year or to ensure maximum effectiveness every six months. Your lamp’s effectiveness will be influenced by the machine it is operating in and the environment surrounding the lamp’s use. Due to a frequent switching ON/OFF of the germicidal UV lamps, the service life of UV lamps is greatly diminished. This is caused by a surge of an electrical current that wears out the elements in the UV lamp(s). Always follow your UV device manufacturer’s safety and handling instructions. When new lamps are installed they should be clean.
What industries use UV water treatment?
It is a well-proven technology and pretty much every industry that utilizes water for process or production could employ UV technology for water treatment. Examples include microelectronics, life sciences, food & beverage, aquaculture, recreational water, municipal drinking water, etc.
Describe a typical UV water treatment unit and how it works.
A typical UV unit works by irradiating flowing water using UV lamps strategically placed within the treatment chamber. Although the water resides within the chamber for only a few seconds, it receives sufficient UV dosage to be lethal to microorganisms present in the feed water. A dosage of 30 mJ/cm2 is more than sufficient to destroy most water-borne microorganisms. UV treatment requires only a fraction of the contact time required by other disinfection methods.
Why are two different wavelengths used in water treatment?
Two different UV wavelengths are employed in water treatment 254 and 185 nm. 254 nm UV light is called the germicidal light because of its ability to destroy microorganisms. It is used to disinfect and to destroy ozone. It penetrates the outer cell wall of the microorganism, passes through the cell body, reaches the DNA and alters the genetic material, destroying the organism. The 185 nm light carries more energy than the 254 nm light. It generates hydroxyl (OH·) free radicals by cleavage of the water molecules, and is used in TOC reduction to decompose organic molecules into carbon dioxide and water.
Explain the need for TOC reduction for the ultrapure water used for the semiconductor industry
Residual Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in semiconductor rinse water streams causes a haze over the wafer surface that contaminates the wafer and leads to wafer defects. UV treatment renders the rinse water cleaner and virtually devoid of the undesirable TOC.
UV treatment is a proven method of Ozone destruction. Why is that so important to the beverage industry?
Beverage companies use residual ozone in their water systems to sanitize/disinfect the storage tanks, plumbing and pumps and to insure that they remain bacteria free. The residual ozone needs to be destroyed prior to contact with the product so that it does not contaminate. UV is ideal because it is a non-chemical process and it’s fast.
RO – FAQ’s
What is osmosis?
A process of diffusion of a solvent such as water through a semi-permeable membrane which will transmit the solvent but impede most dissolved substances. The normal flow of solvent is from the dilute solution to the concentrated solution. Osmosis causes the stronger solution to become more diluted and tends to equalize the opposing solutions.
What is reverse osmosis (RO)?
A process for the removal of dissolved ions from water, in which pressure is used to force the water through a semi-permeable membrane, which will transmit the water but reject most other suspended and dissolved materials. It is called reverse osmosis because mechanical pressure is used to force the water to flow in the direction that is the reverse of natural osmosis, namely from the dilute to the concentrated solution.
What is the primary filtering in RO?
The primary filtering media in these systems is an RO membrane. Depending on your application, we offer different reverse osmosis membranes suited for sea water desalination, brackish water, and high flow commercial applications.
Filter Cartridges – FAQ’s
What are some applications for filter cartridges?
RO pre-treatment, pure water filtration, food and beverage, oil and gas, electronics, chemical processing, pharmaceuticals, medical and general industry.
What are the features of a pleated filter?
Flotrex* pleated microfiber filters – combining precise micron ratings with exceptional solids-holding capacity and long service life. Nominal and absolute micron retention ratings: 0.2 to 40 m. Memtrex* pleated membrane filters – absolute micron ratings for the ultimate in product safety and purity. Absolute micron retention ratings: 0.05 to 0.45 m. Available with PES, Nylon, PCTE, Polyproylene and PTFE membranes.
What are the features of a depth filter?
Long life, low pressure drop, superior dirt holding capacity, high efficiency, and consistent quality.